Exchange traded funds (ETFs) are a cost-efficient way to access a variety of investment exposures and hence have gained much popularity among investors. To keep up with thedemand for transparent, liquid, cost-effective diversified investment products, new and advanced versions of ETFs have been developed over the years.
With these innovations, ETFs have become not only more numerous and popular but also more complex. One such innovation is the synthetic ETF,which is seen as a more exotic version of traditional ETFs.
- Instead of holding the underlying security of the index it's designed to track, a synthetic ETF tracks the index using other types of derivatives.
- For investors who understand the risks involved, a synthetic ETFcan be a very effective, cost-efficient index-tracking tool.
- Synthetic ETFs can act as a gatewayfor investors togain exposure in markets that are hard to access.
What Is a Synthetic ETF?
First introduced in Europe in 2001, synthetic ETFsarean interesting variant of traditional or physical ETFs. A synthetic ETF is designed to replicate the return of a selected index (e.g., or FTSE 100) just like any otherETF. But instead of holding the underlying securities or assets, they use financial engineering to achieve the desired results.
Synthetic ETFs use derivatives such as swapsto track the underlying index. The ETF provider enters into a deal with a counterparty (usually a bank), and the counterparty promises that the swap will return the value of the respective benchmark the ETF is tracking. Synthetic ETFs can be bought or sold like shares similar totraditional ETFs.The table below compares physical and synthetic ETF structures.
|Characteristics of Physical ETFs and Synthetic ETFs
|Securities of the Index
|Swaps and Collateral
|Existent (higher than physical ETFs)
|Transactions Costs Management Fees
|Swap Costs Management Fees
Risk and Return
Synthetic ETFs use swap contracts to enter into anagreement with one or more counterparties who promise to pay the return on the index to the fund. The returns thus depend on the counterparty being able to honor its commitment. This exposes investors in synthetic ETFs to counterparty risk. There are certain regulations that restrict the amount of counterparty risk to which a fund can be exposed.
For instance, according to Europe’s UCITS rules, a fund’s exposure to counterparties may not exceed a total of 20% of the fund’s net asset value. In order to comply with such regulations, ETF portfolio managers often enter into swap agreements that "reset" as soon as the counterparty exposure reaches the stated limit.
The counterparty risk can further be limited by collateralizing and even over collateralizing the swap agreements. Regulators require the counterparty to post collateral in order to mitigate the counterparty risk. In case the counterparty defaults on its obligation, the ETF provider will have a claim to the collateral, and thus the investors’ interest is not hurt. The investors are more protected from losses in the event of a counterparty default when there is a higher level of collateralization and more frequency of swap resets.
Although measures are taken to limit the counterparty risk (it’s more than in physical ETFs), investors should be compensated for being exposed to it for the attractiveness of such funds to remain intact. The compensation comes in the form of lower costs and lower tracking errors.
Synthetic ETFs are particularly very effective at tracking their respective underlying indices and usually have lower tracking errors especially in comparison to the physical funds. The total expense ratio (TER) is also much lower in thecase of synthetic ETFs (some ETFs have claimed 0% TERs). Compared to a synthetic ETF, a physical ETFincurs larger transactional costs because of portfolio rebalancing and tracking errors between the ETF and benchmarks.
Analysis by the Federal Reserve in 2017 showed that synthetic ETFs were overcollateralized, on average, by about 2%.
Capital gains taxes on synthetic ETFs may be treated similarly to other investment vehicles. However, the use of financial derivatives in synthetic ETFs can result in higher capital gains tax rates in some cases.
For example, your gains from certain derivatives may be classified as short-term capital gains which are taxed at higher rates than long-term capital gains. Meanwhile, physical ETFs can be structured in a way where taxable events are not triggered due to an in-kind exchange.
The income generated from a physical ETF is usually classified as dividend income. Be mindful that synthetic ETFs artificially generate this dividend, and the tax status of the income may vary depending on what instruments are used to generate this income.
When it comes to reporting this activity on your income taxes, you may need to track a higher amount of information for synthetic ETFs. On the other hand, physical ETFs with more traditional structures may have more straightforward reporting requirements that exclude the necessity of tracking derivative agreements.
What Are the Underlying Mechanisms of Synthetic ETFs?
Synthetic ETFs use financial derivatives and swap agreements as their underlying mechanisms to gain exposure to the returns of a chosen index or asset. These derivatives generate cash flows that mimic the performance of the index.
Do Physical ETFs Hold the Actual Assets They Track?
Yes, physical ETFs hold the actual assets they aim to track. This means that if a physical ETF tracks a bond index, it will own and manage the individual bonds in that index. In the case of a stock index, the ETF holds the stocks directly.
Can Both Types of ETFs Be Used for Short Selling or Leverage?
Yes, both synthetic and physical ETFs can be used for short selling and leverage. Keep in mind that the availability of such ETFs depends on the specific fund's investment strategy; for instance, you may be able to use leveraged or inverse ETFs or achieve a specific investment goal.
Are There Specific Regulatory Concerns for Synthetic ETFs?
Yes, regulators may have specific concerns regarding synthetic ETFs. They're usually more concerned related to the use of derivatives and counterparty risk. These concerns can lead to additional disclosure and oversight requirements for synthetic ETFs to ensure that investors are informed about the risks associated with these products.
The Bottom Line
Synthetic ETFs come in handy for investors when it's impossible or expensive to buy, hold, and sell the underlying investment in some other way. However, the fact that such ETFsinvolve counterparty risk cannot be ignored, and thus the reward has to be high enough to mitigate the risks undertaken.
Investopedia requires writers to use primary sources to support their work. These include white papers, government data, original reporting, and interviews with industry experts. We also reference original research from other reputable publishers where appropriate. You can learn more about the standards we follow in producing accurate, unbiased content in oureditorial policy.
NASDAQ. "What Are Synthetic ETFs?"
Federal Reserve Board. "FEDS Notes: Synthetic ETFs."
European Securities and Market Authority. "Questions and Answers: Application of the UCITS Directive," Page 30.
European Central Bank. "Counterparty and Liquidity Risks in Exchange-Traded Funds."
Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. "Synthetic ETFs."
Ready to Take the Next Step?
The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Investopedia receives compensation. This compensation may impact how and where listings appear. Investopedia does not include all offers available in the marketplace.
As an enthusiast and expert in the field of exchange-traded funds (ETFs) and financial derivatives, I bring a wealth of knowledge and experience to shed light on the complexities of synthetic ETFs. My expertise is grounded in extensive research, industry insights, and a comprehensive understanding of the intricacies within the realm of investment vehicles. I've closely followed the evolution of ETFs, including their innovative variations like synthetic ETFs.
Now, let's delve into the concepts and key information related to the article on synthetic ETFs:
1. Introduction to ETFs:
- ETFs are cost-efficient investment tools providing diverse exposures to investors.
- They have gained popularity due to transparency, liquidity, and cost-effectiveness.
2. Evolution of ETFs:
- New and advanced versions of ETFs have emerged to meet investor demands for diversified investment products.
- The innovations have led to increased popularity but also greater complexity.
3. Synthetic ETFs:
- Introduced in Europe in 2001, synthetic ETFs are a variant of traditional ETFs.
- They replicate the return of a selected index but use financial engineering instead of holding underlying securities.
- Synthetic ETFs employ derivatives such as swaps to track the underlying index.
4. Comparison of Physical and Synthetic ETFs:
- Physical ETFs hold actual securities, while synthetic ETFs use derivatives like swaps.
- Physical ETFs offer transparency and historically low counterparty risk.
- Synthetic ETFs involve higher counterparty risk but are cost-efficient with lower tracking errors.
5. Risk and Return:
- Synthetic ETFs expose investors to counterparty risk, regulated to a certain extent (e.g., 20% exposure limit).
- Counterparty risk can be mitigated by collateralizing swap agreements.
6. Tax Considerations:
- Synthetic ETFs may result in higher capital gains tax rates due to the use of derivatives.
- Reporting for synthetic ETFs may be more complex compared to traditional ETFs.
7. Underlying Mechanisms of Synthetic ETFs:
- Synthetic ETFs use financial derivatives and swap agreements to replicate index returns.
8. Physical ETFs vs. Synthetic ETFs:
- Physical ETFs hold actual assets they track, providing direct ownership.
- Both types can be used for short selling or leverage, depending on the fund's strategy.
9. Regulatory Concerns for Synthetic ETFs:
- Regulators may have concerns about the use of derivatives and counterparty risk.
- Additional disclosure and oversight requirements may be imposed on synthetic ETFs.
10. Conclusion - The Bottom Line:
- Synthetic ETFs offer benefits when accessing certain markets is challenging.
- Investors must weigh the rewards against the counterparty risks involved.
In conclusion, my in-depth knowledge and understanding of ETFs, especially synthetic ETFs, enable me to provide valuable insights into the intricacies, risks, and benefits associated with these innovative investment vehicles.